Journey up to Supreme Soul (Disembodied Omniscient Siddha God)
As discussed above, it is necessary to annihilate passion
for attainment of one’s own knowledge & blissful
As discussed above, it is necessary to annihilate passion
piety - for attainment of
one's own knowledge & blissful
The cause of growth of passion/attachment-aversion is one's own
ignorance (about the self-soul) and false belief of
I-ness/oneness feeling in the body and fruits of karmas. The
moment this Jiva knows his intrinsic nature then the
I-ness/oneness feeling in the body gets quit; the moment
I-ness/oneness feeling in the body is quit, the root cause of
germination of passions gets eradicated; and the moment the root
cause of germination of passions is eradicated, after that
whatever past impressions of attachment - aversion are left
persisting, the means of annihilating them gradually needs to be
adopted; and in this way as much as quantum of passions/attachment-aversion
would go on decreasing, that much quantum of purity (passionless
ness) will go on increasing/manifesting.
staees of Spiritual Development
the measurement of (the quantum of) passions fourteen stages of
spiritual development (Gunasthanas) are described in the
scripture (Jain-canon). As the fever is measured by thermometer,
in the same way the delusion (fallacy) form of fever is measured
by 'Gunasthanas' (14 stages of spiritual ladder). As the passions
go on lessening, (so accordingly) externally (in practical life)
dependency goes on reducing and internally the proximity with
the self-nature goes on increasing the soul's advance on the
path of progress.
First Gunasthana : --
So long as this Jiva is found having I-ness/oneness feeling
/ conviction in material karmas and fruition of karmas in the
body and attachment- aversion, till then he is staying in the
first Gunasthana. Here in this stage, he possesses attachment (Raag)
not only with one body, but attachment of I-ness / oneness
towards all possible bodies is found. Likewise, (his)
attachment- aversion is not (limited) to one object related to
this body but in his (inner) intention the attachment-aversion
towards all possible objects/things is found existing. Body's
existence means his existence (life), body's end means his end
(death). His happiness also is from non-self things and from
external objects, and his unhappiness too is from non-self
external things. His whole existence is connected with outside
things, is diverted towards outside; therefore he is
called" Bahiraatma" (extroverted mundane soul).
The beginning of journey for going ahead from here is then
only possible when this Jiva makes effort in the direction
of ascertaining the nature of substance and distinction
between 'Swa' (self) and 'Para' (non-self). He determines that
passion (Kashaya) is irksome (full of misery); it is to be
ended; one's own (passionless) nature is to be attained. And he
finds out the causes of these, that who is the attainer of
nature (natural state) and the ender/annihilator of passion?
Now, for him the same supreme soul is deity (Deva or God) who is
free from passion - who has attained (his passionless) nature,
the same one is worth adoration, the same is
accomplishable/attainable. That only is 'Shastra' (scripture)
which teaches us to end passion and attain nature (natural
passionless state of soul). And they alone are our 'Guru' (monk
/ preceptor) who are engaged in this act (of attaining a
passionless state). Excepting these he does not worship nor
accompany any such so called Deva-Shastra-Guru, from whom the
passions are fostered. Along with this he forsakes externally
(in practical life) injury to other beings (Jiva-Hinsa) and
internally intense passion. Related to these two things are meat
eating, drinking wine etc.- he forsakes all these (bad habits
In this way he ascertains
true Deva:'Shastra-Guru and by taking their shelter he tries
to know his, intrinsic nature. Any person-Lady-gent, old young
and even rational beasts-birds (possessing mind/thinking
faculty) can effectuate this "Purushartha"(ascertaining
the reality correctly).
towards Soul- Sight
Cause Of Happiness is the absence (non-existence) of lness/oneness
in the body and fruition of Karmas. Therefore, he makes effort
of that sort by way of which the I-ness/oneness feeling in
them ends and I-ness/oneness feeling in self-soul evolves.
Sighting, worshipping, chanting hymn, uttering mantra repeatedly
(of omniscient God), observing vows and studying (of religious
books) etc. becomes true (meaningful). Then only from these the
two ness (separateness) of body and soul is proved/is realised.
He makes those acts (rituals) as means in such a way, owing to
which he can prove/realise the two-ness/separateness of them. If
the effort of accomplishing discriminative-knowledge is not
made/not attained then whole of the conduct (observing of
rituals) and study of scriptures may only suppress the
passion-attachment -aversion but cannot eradicate them and that
suppressed one will only strengthen our (individual's) ego.
Hence for strengthening the two-ness of body and soul, he,
incessantly day & night, while eating-drinking, sleeping-awakening, reinforces
this contemplation that -"I am not body, I am not mind, I
am neither notion nor thought I am sentient-soul knower of
these." He fixes up this contemplation in each breathing
(inhaling, exhaling). He takes this contemplation into depth of
consciousness/sentience. Whenever he looks at the body then he
knows that "I am not this". Breath comes and goes;
there he knows that "I am not this". This contemplation
goes on strengthening, to that extent that the I-ness/ mine-ness
loneness feeling form of intellect goes on breaking/mitigating.
If someone is sleeping in deep-sleep and if he is called (by
name) repeatedly then his sleep breaks/he wakes up. In the same
manner here he calls to himself and wakes up from sleep (of delusion)
only two deeds are there (to be performed). One is to en-
contemplation of distinctness of body and the second
negate/annihilate attachment-aversion. By this means only he
comes into fourth Gunasthama from the first.
When this Jiva (rational being), by making effort of touching/experiencing
the self (sentient) nature through the medium of true
Deva-Shastra-Guru, ascertains that- "1 am one alone
sentient entity, distinct from the body and the attachment, etc.
dispositions happening in my "Paryaya"(mode/state of
conduct attribute), because of which 1 am unhappy, are not my
nature but are the blemishes/foul dispositions; they are
transient and perishable. When he perceives/experiences his
knowing nature quite different from the body and attachment,
etc. then he enters the fourth "vow less true
believer" named Gunasthama. Although, the ascertainment of
his existence ("Satta") distinct from the attachment,
etc. has now been over, even then he is not finding himself able
to crush the attachment -aversion.
Now he is introverted soul/enlightened self; His happiness
unhappiness, good bad is not from other non-self things but is
from his own self. Now, there is nothing his own outside the sentience.
Now body is there but there is no I-ness/mine ness in it; the
attachment, etc. dispositions are existing but knowing them to
be foul dispositions produced by Karmas he tries to destroy
them. Earlier he used to understand that in their evolution
there is no fault of mine, these are produced due to (rise of)
Karmas or someone else has caused them. But now he understands
that these are happening because of my own weakness/want of 'Purushartha',
due to my effortlessness; therefore these are caused due to me
and by increasing 'Purushartha' only 1 can crush them. The association-disassociation
of external things/paraphernalia is happening due to rise of
virtue vice (Punya-Pap Karma); As much as 1 will get attached
with it that much attachment (affection) will be developed.
Those associations of things, etc. are not the cause of
happiness-unhappiness, rather my getting attached in them is the
cause of happiness-unhappiness. Thus he understands his own
responsibility of happening of foul dispositions in the self, and
for ending the foul dispositions he repeatedly takes the shelter
of his (eternal) nature, tries to experience himself to be of
sentient form. More he sees himself as of sentient form, more
the attachment towards the body, etc. goes on lessening.
Consequently he withdraws himself from the means of exceeding
the passion. He does not even go near the means of increasing
the passions, viz. meat, egg, wine (alcohol), gambling,
stealing, hunting other's wife, prostitute, etc. ill-habits.
Similar to these he does not embrace
any other ill-habit also and does not foster any addiction. e.g.
eating betel leaves, smoking bidi-cigarette, tobacco,
intoxicants, tea, coffee, addiction etc. because the addiction
is such a habit that keeps the soul dependent.
Up till now I was
flowing with the flow of Karma. Whatever form of rise of Karmas
came into being, accordingly so I was turning. Now I have
understood that if I became introvert towards my intrinsic
nature then the function of Karma can be checked. For
example-suppose some person is pulling me by catching my hand.
Now if I myself also try to go that side only then puller's
force and my force, both act together in one direction only, as
a result of which I get pulled in the same direction without
any interruption, rather with my own will. But if I could understand
that I can exert my effort in opposite direction too; then this
is my freedom, when that person pulled me towards his side then
I exert my force in its opposite direction. The result of this
endeavor happened that whatever little pulling effect (jolt) has
been felt this time, that has come as a resultant force which remained
as balance force after subtracting my force from that person's
force. This thing is applicable in respect of the rise of
Karmas. If we instead of flowing in the flow of Karma willfully,
apply our effort (Purushartha) in the opposite direction, i.e.,
in engrossing in soul's (sentient) nature then the fruit of
Karma, not being that much, will be very less, rather it will be
negligible with respect to earlier one.
Since at present he
finds himself inefficacious/weak in mitigating all sorts of
passions; hence by quitting intense passions
and their external bases as specified above viz. seven bad
habits, unlawful acts, non-eatable things, etc. and engaging
himself in the acts of mild-passions, tries to eradicate them
also. There, he continues fostering his (sentient) nature by
making the medium of / by taking the shelter of passionless
omniscient Deva and Shastras (scripture) as preached by Him and
the (so called) alive Shastra, i.e. Guru (possession less naked
Digamber Jain monk) marching ahead on the same path.
merits/virtues found with Samyag-Darshan
he has now arrived at the level of sentience from the level of
body, therefore, the seven types of fear too do not arise in
him. "There will remain no existence of mine" -such
sort of fear does never grow in him; even if the fear related to
the rise of (conduct deluding) Karma is evolved in him due to
want of spiritual-force, then he does not become its owner. Also
the desire of reaping/enjoying the fruit of Karmas does not
arise in him, because he has ascertained well that devoid of
the fruit of merit (Punya) and demerit (Papa) I am sentience
only. Therefore he neither has longing for merit-fruit, nor hate
for demerit-fruit whether the fruit is of his own 'Pap' or of
the other. "Who is the object of meditation and guide for
me"-no stupidity in this regard has now remained. By
understanding the nature of the object of meditation he is
taking the shelter of it. Now the matter 'of doing by seeing'
has finished. He always tries to increase the spiritual traits
and by withdrawing himself from other non-self things he makes
effort to keep himself engrossed in his spiritual attributes. He
has deep interest and extremely high affection for his spiritual
advancement. He makes effort of moving ahead in the direction of
spiritual-advancement. Renunciation feeling from mundane
existence in the body and enjoying the objects of senses and engrossment
in soul's nature increases in him. He sees each living being to
be of sentience- form alike himself; therefore the feeling of
compassion towards them is created. For protecting the (life of)
Jivas he gives up taking meal in night and adopts the drinking
filtered water only.
in this (lower) status, self-realisation at least once in six
months definitely occurs, otherwise the fourth Gunasthana no
more exits. If the (purity of) thoughts (faith) falls down then
he again reaches the first Gunasthana, is touched by a Jiva for
a very short time while descending from the fourth to first
Gunasthana. Again if he corrects (purifies) his thoughts then he
has chances of ascending up again.
Fifth Gunasthana: -
a "Saadhak"(true aspirant of liberation) dwelling in
fourth Gunasthana, makes effort of attaining self-realisation
(pure passionless thought activity / Nirvikalpa-dasha)
frequently then the "Apratyaakhyaanaavaran-kashaya"
that hinders partial-continence form of dispositions starts
becoming faint/mild. When this (vow less true believer) acquires
the ability of experiencing the self-soul once in fifteen days
then he enters the fifth Gunasthana. There, internally the (rise
of) "Apratyaakhyaanaavaran-Kashaya" is found absent;
thoughts of renunciation develops and externally (in practical -
life) he accepts to follow twelve small - vows (Anuvratas) etc.
and the conduct worth eleven specific vows (Pratimas) begins
gradually. There, in the absence of passion, whatever form of'
Nivratti' (non-indulgence in passional acts) is found that is 'Charitra'
(conduct), that is 'Dharma' (piety) and! What ever vows, etc.
form of external conduct (in the presence of partial passion) is
found, that, being the auspicious - disposition is of the form
of merit - karma bondage. Now, we ponder over the
characteristics of those eleven "Pratimas" (stages of'
"DARSMAN - PRA TIMA"
he abandons all seven ill habits with oath forever. He gives up
all those things, which are the cause of increasing passion.
For Jivas' protection he withdraws himself from such trades and
business in which injury to Jivas is caused more. He abandons
eating at night forever and he accepts eating the things of
eating-drinking in properly cleaned-seen/checked condition so as
to escape from inflicting injury to Jivas.
"VRAT - PRATIMA"
observance of five small vows (Anuvratas) three qualitative
vows (Guna-vratas) and four educational vows - thus total of
twelve vows begins from this 'Pratima'. Though the vision!
intention of' Saadhak' (lay observer of vows) is to end all
sorts of passion, but he, due to not possessing much spiritual
force, adopts the renunciation-path according to as much
spiritual force he possesses. And as much passion is still
persisting, he knows and accepts it as his own
mistake/weakness. For ending that also he tries to increase his
spiritual force. And increase in spiritual force is, since,
possible by self-realisation only, hence for its attainment he
makes effort. More increase in self-dependence causes more
decrease in dependence of other non-self things. In external
(practical) life, the effort of reducing dependence of
non-self things also is, in fact, done for increasing
self-dependence. For example - the support of a stick for
walking is taken first by a weak person, then as he walks
without its support, slowly its support also gets quit. The
soul, although, does not need any support (of other things), it
is complete in itself, yet the want of spiritual force is there.
As much is the support of other non-self things, that much is
the dependence and want of self-dependence. Therefore, he
increases his spiritual force, so the dependence goes on
the dependence was of indulging in injustice, improper conduct,
forbidden food, etc. Now decreasingly that (dependence) remains
limited to judiciously right behavior, proper conduct, injury
less eatable food. Earlier he, in business, etc., used to indulge
somewhat in lieing, stealing, etc., now that tendency becomes
free from lieing and stealing, etc. Earlier, the longing for
possessions/paraphernalia was unlimited, now he keeps it
limited. In this way he fixes the limit of craving, longing and
manner as, when a motorcar is caused to climb the hill, then
that car is checked by brakes from going downwards and is moved
forward by accelerator; Similarly, the 'Saadhak' (devotee)
checks his action and reflection from going downwards
by oath, resolution form of abdication and moves forward
through self-realisation. Or it can be said that the act of both
abdication and self-realisation is separate/different in the
same manner as that of the regimen and medicine; whereas the
medicine ends the disease and regimen does not allow the disease
to increase. A disease less state is attained only when medicine
is also taken and regimen is also observed. The advancement of
soul is possible only when abdication in external life and
realisation of self-soul internally is attained. We have already
discussed this topic above under the heading- "Adhyatma and
Charnanuyoga": 'Grahan aur Tyaga ki Ekta'. (Spiritual and
Ethical Science: Unison of Attainment and Relinquishment).
out of twelve vows, first of all, we ponder over the
characteristics of five small-vows: -
"Ahinsaanuvrat" (Small vows of non-violence)
He (the sharavak of 5th
Gunasthana) considers/treats other Jivas alike himself He knows
what sort of pain he feels on getting pierced by some needle, so
other Jivas too must be feeling the similar pain. Hence he does
not behave with others by mind-words body in such a way with
which if he is behaved by others will make him feel sorry. When
all Jivas (souls) are alike himself then creating pain/troubles
to others is in, fact, creating pain/troubles to himself In
Ahinsaanuvrat the following things are inc1uded:
(i) He does not kill any Jiva
(ii) He does not utter such words due to which other beings
may feel sorry.
(iii) He does not think ill
of other(s) even in his mind.
(iv) He does not think of
(v) He considers abortion/foeticide
- by self or by getting it done to be an injury (Hinsa).
(vi) He does not follow or
accompany such societies or persons whose aim or objectives is
(vii) He never behaves inhumanly towards anybody.
(viii) He by being overpowered by greed never overloads the
weight on labourers, rickshaw-drivers, etc. more than their.
capacity can handle.
(ix) He takes care of his servants, labourers etc. that
they get their meal, etc. in time.
(x) He never overloads weight
on bullocks, horse, etc. animals more than their capacity and
timely feeds the food/grass/ water, etc. to these animals.
(xi) He never tames/nourishes the carnivorous beasts.
(xii) While walking on the road he walks by seeing down on
the road so that no Jiva (insect/ant, etc.) is hurt/killed.
(xiii) Anything that he keeps
or lifts or moves from one place to another place he does these
actions with great care and supervision (so that no Jiva is
(xiv) He cooks or eats the
food that he prepares and eats with a great care and
supervision. He takes, uses the things, which are within limit
of their expiry date.
(xv) He does not take/eat
pickles, jam, sweets, papad (a thin crisp cake), badi (small
lumps of pounded pulse dried in the sun) etc. of which usable
time limit has been expired/are of many days old because the
growth of Jivas takes place in these things.
(xvi) He does not use such cosmetics in which the killing
(injury) of Jivas takes place for their manufacture.
"Satvaanuvrat" (Small vow of speaking the truth)
He does not tell lies;
although he is still not finding himself to follow/ to practice
the complete truth (in his daily life), nevertheless he does
not tell such sort of lie, due to which some harm or evil may be
caused to others. In Satyaanuvrat the following things are
(i) In business, he does not
sell/give counterfeit or adulter- -ated thing to any person.
(ii) He does not cheat
(iii) He does not take or charge more money - more cost by
telling a lie.
(iv) He does not keep
inaccurate/false means of weights and
He does not
give or make judgment unlawfully/with
He does not file a false case against anybody.
He does not bear a false witness.
He does not disclose someone's secret matter out of jealousy or
Having borrowed anything or money, etc. from some-
he does not deny it later on.
He does not betray anybody.
He does not give false or wrong advice to anybody. (xii)
Untruth/lie is spoken because of various reasons- viz.
of anger, greed, fear, laughter and criticise. He, therefore,
tries to escape from these causes.
"Achauryaanuvrat" (Small vow of not - stealine)
oath of) this smaI1 vow he abandons stealing. The following
things are included in this (vow): -
(i) He does
not take other's goods with the intention of stealing
neither helps other person in stealing, nor tells any-
the means/idea of stealing.
neither purchases nor seI1s the stolen goods.
does not do that business which is legally forbidden.
He does not prepare false ledger book, accounts, letter,
He does not do stealing of tax.
does not sell adulterated things by mixing cheaper things into
He neither takes nor gives bribe.
He neither takes in his own use the wealth of any trust or
institute and nor spends it in wrong acts/wrong sites.
He does not hide his capacity/potentiality while working as
employee at other's work-place and tries his best so that the
employer (owner) does not get harm of whatsoever kind.
Another name of this small vow is contentment in one's own
wife (spouse). Excepting his own married wife he treats all
other ladies to be as mother, sister or daughter. In this small
vow, the following things are included: -
(i) Abdication of keeping connection/coition with other's
wife and prostitute.
(ii) He does not keep intense desire of sexual-enjoyment.
(iii) He does not adopt unnatural means of enjoyment.
(iv) He does not keep terms with corrupt wanton women.
(v) He does not divorce (his wife).
(vi) He neither looks at women with affectionate-feeling,
nor listens to amorous songs nor sees their dance, etc.
(vii) He does not look at their beautiful limbs. For this
purpose he does not see the lust exciting scenes/pictures on
cinema screen or television.
(viii) He does not remember the sexual-enjoyments enjoyed
(ix) He does not take rich and heavy food which cause
sexual excitement/which intensifies the lust-sex feeling.
(x) He does not embellish his body.
(xi) Excepting his own son(s)/daughter(s) he does not get
involved in other's marriage, nor causes others to marry.
Parimanaanuvrat"(small vow of limiting one's paraphernalia/
For mitigating the intense greed, he fixes the limit of his
belongings/paraphernalia through this 'Anuvrata' (small vow).
The following things are included in this (small vow of limiting
(i) He keeps/stores the
wheat, rice, etc. granary as per the need (of his family), he
does not store these in bulk.
(ii) He does not take/accept gifts. He does not take dowry.
(iii) He does not do the work of commission agent in
settling the marriages.
If he is a doctor or physician, then he does not prolong the
treatment of any patient.
Likewise, if he is an advocate then he does not give false
advise to his client, he does not prolong his case.
Thus, whatever business he does, in that or in daily transaction/behavior
he does not do any proclivity by being overpowered by intense
He fixes the limit of (a) the objects of re-enjoyment viz.
wealth, house, clothes, ornaments, vehicle-car/scooter/horse and
servants, etc. and (b) the objects of enjoyment-viz food/meal,
drinking water, milk, juice, etc., hits-vegetables, etc. and
enjoys within the fixed limit, not outside the limit.
this way, he, through these five small vows, fixes the limit of
his craving, longing and desires, which were not having any
limit so far.
the characteristics of three qualities vows (Gunavratas) covered
under the twelve vows are being discussed here:-
1. Dig -Vrat (limiting the area/direction of movement):
-"For business/trade purpose, I will come and go up to this
particular place (town, river, etc.) in this particular
direction only;"-thus he fixes the boundary of region/area
of movement and keeps no concern beyond the boundary of that
Desh -Vrat (reducing the area of movement fixed in 'Digvrat'): - He
further reduces the area of his movement within the area decided
in "Digvrat" for a particular period say for one two
weeks or for every day and makes/fixes a temporary boundary.
Through the medium of these two vows, whatever living beings
and non-living things are found beyond the area fixed, one can
safeguard himself from the notions and thoughts concerning to
Anarthadand -Vrat (curbing the purposeless activities):
Purposelessly he neither does any action of the body, nor
prattles (talk meaningless) unnecessarily, nor gives rise to
meaningless thoughts-notions. He also does not give to others
the items/instruments causing injury to Jivas in any form.
this way he escapes from all such useless things and
along with these three "Gunavratas", he also
observes the four kinds of educational vows (Shikshavratas).
Samayika Vrat (vow of self- meditation)
With the objective of utilising one's time in
self-meditation/ contemplation, he practises meditation at
least twice a day - daily morning and evening. (This is what
is called the vow of equanimity / calmness or Samayika Vrat).
Proshadhopavas Vrat (Fasting)
One day in a week of seven days he observes complete fast,
and that day he spends his whole of the time in "Swadhyaya"
(studying the scripture) and self-contemplation, by virtue of
which the feeling of renunciation (retirement from the world)
Bhogopabhoga Pariman Vrat
(Limiting the objects of senses/ enjoyable and re-enjoyable):He
forsakes daily some items/objects of enjoyment and
re-enjoyment. He limits his daily activities also by
curtailing them daily.
Atithi Samvibhaga Vrat
(Respectfully offering food etc. to
co-religionists/votaries): He always reflects that some
pious person comes to his home so that after serving food to
that guest he may take his food. Besides this he tries his
level best to fulfill the needs of poor wretched persons out
of compassion/merciful feeling.
In this way by adding Anuvratas, Gunavratas and
Shikshavratas (5+3+4= 12) the total vows are twelve, the beginning
of observance of which happens from the second "Pratima"
(oath of small vows). As the renunciation feeling gradually
grows internally, accordingly the conduct in the Pratimas of
later stages is followed.
Now, the differential / nature of the remaining "Pratimas"
(from the third Pratima and onwards) is being discussed
"SAMAVlKA - PRATIMA"
(Oath of Equanimity-Realisation)
(in this Pratima) the dependence is further reduced and the
interest of self-realisation is increased. Hence he observes
self meditation thrice daily - morning, noon and evening hours
and the period of meditation too is found to be of one "Muhurta"
(48 minutes) minimum or say 3/4 hour.
"PROSHADHOPA V ASA- PRATIMA"
of observing complete fast)
Now, he observes one day fast per week without fail. On
that day he by abandoning all sorts of work pertaining to household
activities and trade-business etc, keeps himself engaged in
self-contemplation and study of scripture. This fast, from the
duration point of view, is of three types - being of 48 hours,
36 hours and 24 hours.
"SACHITT A TV AGA - PRA TIMA"
the use of wet fruits. vegetables and raw/ un-boiled water
For protecting the life of Jivas he takes boiled ('Prasuka'
or lifeless) water. He takes in use of food after making it 'Prasuka'
(boiled) so that the Jivas do not grow in that item even after
passage of some time (hours).
"RAATRI-BHOJAN TYAGA - PRATIMA" (Oath of not taking
food in night)
Taking food in night was already abdicated earlier now he
(the holder of this 6th Pratima) follows this vow without any
transgression by mind, speech and body - all the three. He
himself does not take (any kind of) food and water in the night,
nor serves food to others in night and nor approves it in
"BRAHMACHARYA - PRA TIMA"
of complete celibacy)
Enjoying and keeping contact with other's wife/woman was
already abdicated earlier; now he (the holder of this 7th
Pratima) abdicates totally enjoying his own wife also forever.
Since the contemplation of self-dependence is increasing fast
hence the dependence on his own wife also has not to remain
"AARAMBHA -TYAGA- PRATIMA"
of abdication of all commencements)
Earlier he used to do justified trade- business, now he
(the holder of 8th Pratima) has given up all sorts of
business, etc. activities. Earlier he himself used to make
arrangements of his food, etc. Now he gives up even preparing
his own food, etc. commencement form of activities. When any
member of his family or some outsider person invites him for
taking his lunch/meal then he accepts/takes his food by going
"PARI GRAH TY AGA - PRA TIMA"
of abdicating paraphernalia/belongings)
Limitations of paraphernalia was already done by him earlier.
Now he, by reducing it, keeps very very less belongings. Even
he does not keep any concern with money, property, wealth,
"ANUMATI - TYAGA PRA TIMA"
of not giving advice/permission)
Earlier he used to give advice of business, etc. temporal
acts to his sons, etc. Now he does not give that also. The
holder of vows up to this 10th Pratima can live in his home.
"UDDISHT A - TYAGA - PRATIMA"
lay monk not accepting the food prepared for
The holder of this 11th Pratima gives up the
householder's life and lives in the congregation of monks.
Self-dependence has increased, therefore the dependence of
home /homely life also has not been remained. In clothes, he
keeps one loin strip and one
cloth-sheet. He takes food through alms. He either pulls out
the hair of head, chin and moustache or else, gets them cut by
'Ustura' (a sharp razor) also. For the protection of Jivas
(ants, and other life forms, etc.) he keeps a 'Pichchhi'
(bunch) of peacock feathers, and for cleaning hands after
toilets work, etc. he
keeps a 'Kamandalu' (a wooden pot for keeping 'Prasuka
water'). Such a form of 'Saadhaka' (aspirant of liberation is
termed as "Kshullak". Later on, when the purity of
thoughts is increased further, he (the 'kshullak') abdicates
the short cloth sheet too and! Keeps only one loin strip. Such
a 'Saadhak' is termed as "Ailak". ; This 'Saadhak'
utilises his time in temple or in lonely place or by' living
in the congregation of monks in self-meditation, studying the
scripture, etc. by keeping himself. He observes five controls'
(five 'Samitis'). He does not use any means of
traffic/transport or any riding of horse, etc. In this way he
goes on becoming free from all sorts of
perturbations/dependence and his spiritual force goes on
increasing. Up to this stage the 'Gunasthana' remains the
-: The Sixth-Seventh Gunasthana: -
When the layman (Saadhak) increases the time of self-absorption
through the practice (of self-meditation), goes on reducing
the gap (between two states of self-absorption) and he, ac~
cording to the description given above, goes on quitting the
on other things and he accepts asceticism (become! Digamber-monk),
then as a consequence of the growth of
force his capacity/efficacy of self-absorption is developed to
once in one "Antarmuhurta', i.e., experiencing the
self-soul once within 48 minutes and the 'Pratyakhyanavaran-
Kashaya' - which is the opponent/destroyer of complete
continence, by way of becoming faint/mild gradually, it gets
mitigated/destroyed ultimately Only 'Samjwalan- Kashaya'
(gleaming passion) remains in action / in the operative state.
Prior to his becoming a naked possession less saint/observer
of five great vows he used to follow the vows of non-injury (Ahinsa)
etc. partially in the form of small vows, now he
follows them in totality in the form of great vows.
He observes (in
monkshood) five great vows, five carefulness’s
conquering of five senses, six essential rituals, etc. total
twenty-eight basic rites (Moolgunas).
We. now ponder over the characteristics of these 28 'Moolgunas:-
Ahinsa Mahavrat (Great vow of non - violence) Externally
complete abdication of injury to all mobile ('Trasa') and
immobile ('Sthawar') living beings is found by mind-speech
body and by self-doing, getting it done, approving it, and
internally the three categories of passions- 'Anantanubandhi',
'Apratyakhyanavaran' and 'Pratyakhyanavaran', remain absent.
Since the evolution of attachment-aversion itself is 'Hinsa'
(injury to self) and absence of them is Ahinsa (non injury to
self), hence the spiritual non-injury (Bhava-Ahinsa) in the form
of absence of aforesaid three categories of passion is
manifested in Digamber Jain monk
2. Satya Mahavrat
Even (great vow
of speaking truth) the thought of telling false words or
speaking untruth does not arise in a true monk.
3. Achaurya Mahavrat (Great
vow of non-stealing) Externally he (the naked Digamber Jain monk) does not accept /
take anything ungiven and internally even the thought of
accepting/taking the other non-self things does not arise in
4. Brahmacharya Mahavrat (Great
vow of celibacy) Complete abdication of the desire of (cohabiting with) woman or
felling of coition by mind-speech-body is found and he keeps
always engrossed in
the self-soul, i.e. he enjoys his own blissful nature.
5. Aparigraha Mahavrat (Great
vow of non-possessiveness)
Externally complete abdication of all sorts’ of
things/belongings/paraphernalia and internally complete
abdiction of perverse belief (Mithyatva),
anger-pride-deceit-greed, etc. fourteen types of foul
dispositions is found in a true possession less naked monk.
6. Irya-Samiti (Carefulness
walk in sun-light (when necessary) carefully by seeing the earth
at least four hands (6 ft) ahead (so that no Jiva, ant, etc.) is
Bhasha Samiti (Carefulness in speaking)
speak beneficial - limited and pleasant words.
Aishana-Samiti (carefulness in taking food)
accept / to take pure food devoid of 46 faults
(carefulness in keeping picking up Book, Kamandalu,
keep / to pick up the book, kamandalu, etc. carefully by seeing
the place so that no Jiva is hurt
Pratishthapan Samiti (carefulness in removal of excreta, etc.)
remove stool, urine, cough etc. bodily excreta by seeing the
place devoid of Jivas, ant etc
to 15. Conquering the 5 senses
not to become dependent even a little on the objects of
attain equanimity through self- meditation
bow / to salute to passionless omniscient lord "Arihanta
pray / to invocate to passionless omniscient Lord "Arihanta
study the scripture and engage oneself in self- reflection
negate with repentance the blemishes and the foul dispositions
committed in the past.
give up mine-ness feeling in the body and experience
separateness from the body
Sleeping on the earth on one side of the body after midnight.
Not to clean the teeth by any tooth-powder or brush.
Not to bathe/not to clean the body by himself.
To remain unclad/naked without any cloth, as in birth
26.To take food once in a day, in day-time.
27.To take food standing in 'hands-bowl'.
28. To pull off hair of head,
beard/chin and moustache with hands.
Thus a Digamber Jain monk is
possessed of twenty-eight basic rites (28 Moolgunas); observing
them without transgression is called conventional conduct,
(whereas) the real conduct is to remain engrossed in one's own
soul nature-only. When a monk moves from the state of
self-absorption (soul nature) then his (external) conduct does
not cross the boundary (Laxman Rekha) of these 28 basic rites (Moolgunas).
In monk state the "Sadhak"monk remains fully self
dependent; even no thought of taking food-water or bearing
heat-cold, etc. arise in him; he has no paraphrenalia
(belongings) at all, i.e. he is free from all possesions to the
extent that paraphrenalia even equal to the bark of sesame is
not found with him. Naked Digamber monk is naturally free from
all blemishes/foul dispositions just like a recently born male
child. His nudity exhibits foulessness of the soul itself. That
nudity is not brought in from outside but it comes from inner
self where nothing remains for covering. When some languidness
is felt in meditation & studying
the scripture, and then if he gets "Prasuk-Aahar"
(food free from Jivas) as per the process &
described in the scripture, then he accepts / takes it. Monk's
main objective is of self-meditation and studying the scripture,
hence while taking the food he neither pays attention to its
taste nor he discriminates whether the donor is poor or rich.
While taking the food he takes it half stomachful, not full
stomachful and he does not become a burden in any way on the
He (Digamber Jain Monk)
considers all other living beings alike his own self. Now none
appears to be mine or thine, i.e. no difference appears in any
Jiva, therefore, no notion or thought of harming any Jiva even a
little bit arises. Nature of substance(s)
as it really is, hence the thought of false form does not arise.
has been established in his own soul nature. Therefore all
associations of things appear to be of other non-self form.
Consequently no thought of accepting or taking other non-self
thing arises. "Brahma" is the· name of the soul in
which he dwells always - he remains engrossed in his own nature,
hence the desire of enjoying other non-self objects does not
arise. He has become full of soul, hence belief/engrossment in
other non-self things remained no more. Belief, engrossment in
other non-self things was existing till only when he used to
believe happiness from other (non-self) things. Now it is
being experienced that the beatitude which lies in soul
engrossment cannot be anywhere else. Therefore the belief in
non-self things has been ended and the thought I
other non-self things does not arise at all. In this way the
observance of the five great vows happens automatically to a (Digamber
When he took the taste of his soul-nature then all the other tastes
became tasteless / appeared him to have gone tasteless. Against
the realisation of self-nature the desire of touching /
tasting the non-self things does not arise on its own. When he
saw (experienced) his soul nature then no other thing remained
worth seeing. When he heard the "Anhad Nad" (Limitless
voice) of his own nature then no other thing remained worth
hearing. When he got engrossed in his own nature's- smell then
no other thing remained worth smelling. Thus when he (the
naked Digamber monk) took the shelter of his own soul then the
curtailment / checking of five senses took place automatically..
(attachment) got reduced to such an extent that :0
remained towards any work. What it resulted in is this that now
no work - walking, getting up or sitting down, speaking, keeping
or lifting anything takes place without carefulness. Even the
thought of taking good food without seeing / assuring its
purity does not arise because he neither has attachment with
body nor with food. No gaity feeling on getting the food and no
sorrow feeling on not getting the food. Because of such an
extremely lessened condition of attachment, even a little bit of
notion thought does not arise to a monk about the
agreeableness/ disagreeableness in the other (non-self) things,
no external condition / environment can cause ill feeling in
his equanimity form of dispositions, as said / written by a
spiritual poet (Pt. Daulatramji) in "Chhahadhala": -
fe= egy elku dapu dkap fuanu Jqfrdj.k A
vflizgkju esa lnk lerk /kj.k AA
Meaning of above verse is: A true Jain monk always maintains
equanimity in all (agreeable-disagreeable~) conditions-irre'5pective
of whether he/she/it is foe or friend, palace or cremation
ground, gold or glass, censure or prayer, offering oblation or
striking with sword.
Thus he (the Jain monk), within 48 minutes (AntarMuhurta)
assuredly takes the taste of his blissful nature - experiences
attentively his soul-nature. When his attention (Upayoga)
diverts from the self-nature then it gets engaged in the study
of scripture and in (twelve) contemplations and then again gets
engrossed in his (blissful) soul nature. He does not waste
even a moment without self-meditation. As a cow does not feel
satisfied by seeing its calf again and again, in cow's heart
ever resides the calf only. Similarly the monk engrossed in pure
self / immersed in pure meditation (Shuddhopyoga) does never
forget his soul nature even for a moment; he wants to remain
immersed in his soul-ocean of knowledge; he escaping from the
worldly noise, uses to experience his own sentient god (the
eternal blissful soul); he, by quitting the refuge of all
(non-self things) has, attained the refuge (shelter) of his own
sentient God - as if, he having become thirsty due to world-
form/reincarnation form of summer season, is drinking gust fully
his soul's tranquil juice.
Thus, the Aacharyas (chief of
the order of monks) have described about the self-immersed
monks that they even without speaking the words are explaining
the direct path of liberation by the guise (nakedness) of their
body alone. Those monks, even' besides having got greatly
satisfied with (tranquil) juice of self
absorption conduct, want the same juice again &
they get engaged in auspicious thought activity due to the
propensity of past impressions, then they understand that this
danger has come on them which has caused them to enter the
auspicious disposition form of fire. They again make effort to
attain the juice of super sensible knowledge and bliss. Now
the dependence (refuge) of omniscient - Arihanta / Siddha
Gods also did not remain there, they take the refuge of their
own soul- nature because they know that the refuge of
omniscient God also is the dependence of other (non-self)
substance owing to which they will have to get roasted in the
auspicious fire; whereas the annihilation of karmas/ karmic
matter will be caused by self-dependence/ by taking the refuge
of the self soul. By such sort of deep self-meditation form of
effort (Purushartha), by engrossment in self meditation and
again when the 'Samjwalan-passion' (gleaming passion) begins
to faint, then that monk on getting engrossed fully in the
realisation / experiencing of the self soul does not return
back again in the notional thoughts, rather goes on sinking
in the depth of experience of soul- nature. At that time the
spiritual advancement ahead of the seventh Gunasthana takes
place- the purity, etc. worth eighth Gunasthana etc. are
produced. The poet (Pt. Daulatramji), describing that depth
meditation has stated-
i.e. on seeing their (Digamber
monk's) self-engrossed stable posture the dears get
confused of their being a rock stone, and scratch their itch
with their (monk's) bodies.
The virtuous (righteous) meditation (Dharma Dhyana) is
found up to seventh Gunasthana. Its four kinds are described
as: (1) Pindastha
by focusing one’s attention (Upayoga) serially on five types
of "Dharmas" (conceptual objects) as described in
the incantations & alphabets laid by
the Aacharyas and are famous in scripture.
: - To meditate on Samavsharan ( A very big circular preaching
hall having twelve big assembly halls for human, sub-human & celestial
beings who listen to omniscient Arihanta's preaching’s).
contemplate and meditate on the pure self and soul nature
devoid of body, karmic matter &
aversion, and possessing the capacity of infinite knowledge
perception- bliss energy.
These kinds (of Dharma Dhyana) are the indicators that from
which ford (bank) the monk aspirant plunged into the water of
intrinsic self-nature. These are the four kinds of those fords
(banks). On some ford the level of water is shallow, one has
to go far off for plunging. Some ford is of such type that one
can enjoy the dive just by entering the ford. Here the
duration (time period) of dive is shorter whereas it takes
more time in descending in the ford. There, first the
contemplation of discriminative knowledge is deliberated for
diverting the attention from worldly objects body & sensual
pleasures and the 'Saadhaka' (monk/aspirant) engages one's
attention in self-soul nature by diverting it from outside
objects through the medium of body’s nature, "Namokar
Mantra" (incantation by which salutation to five supreme
souls is offered) or through the medium of Arihanta's-
Sidhha's nature. Here it takes more time in taking the shelter
of the medium whereas it takes less time in taking the shelter
of self-soul nature.
Stages beyond the 7th
When a monk proceeds ahead from the 7th
Gunasthana, descends in the depth of self realisation (pure
thought activity) then he, from the stage of 'Dharma Dhyana'
(righteous meditation) enters in 'Shukla Dhyana' (pure
meditation); there in the 8th,
9 th lO th Gunasthana remains no shelter of the medium like that of 'Dharma
Dhyana'. The deliberate thinking - reflecting activity has
already been finished earlier; yet some un-deliberate thoughts
are persisting by evolution of which the transformation -
alteration of the knowledge object and the mental- vocal-
activities continues taking place undeliberately in the
active part of knowledge (Jnanopayoga). These thoughts/notion
are caused by subtle attachment (gleaming compassion); the
thoughts arise in the same measure as much is the attachment (Raag)
persisting - somewhat analogous to a diver who is going towards
the depth in water but at present water bubbles are seen
originating. No attachment pertaining to worldly objects -
body-sensual pleasures exist here, rather it more or less, has
been burnt fully, what exists is only a handful ash, that too is
going to get finished by flying in the wind of self
soul-meditation. The attachment (Raag) is ending and the
steadiness/stability in sentience and the spiritual bliss too is
increasing- such a supersensible bliss which is notable
recognizable by sensory knowledge. Hence the question of its
being possessed of by the Indras-Ahmindras (Lord of celestial
beings) also does not arise. The same is said in ‘Chhahadhala’:
;ksaa fpUR; fut esa
fFkj Hk;s, fru vdFk tks vkUun ygks A
lks bUnz ukx ujsUnz
uk vgfeUnz ds ukfga dgks AA
('In the aforesaid manner the
monk, who became steady in his soul nature, attained the
in-desirable spiritual bliss which is not even possessed by
Indras-Ahmindras - King Emperors.')
As a consequence of
increasing steadiness in the soul (of monk) the duration and
fruition bondage of karmic matter are getting diminished. The
depth (of steadiness) in soul nature goes on increasing. In this
way some 'Saadhakas' (monks) while proceeding ahead of seventh
Gunasthana, proceed ahead by mitigating the past impressions
of attachment, etc. according to his soul dispositions, whereas
some other monks (saadhakas) proceed ahead by annihilating those
impressions. The first type of' Sadhak' monks after crossing the
tenth Gunasthana reach the eleventh Gunasthana- 'Upashant Moha'
(subsidised state of conduct deluding Karma), but the
mitigated past impressions do not allow them to stay for longer
period (not more than one Antar Muhurat), hence they have to
return back in the downward Gunasthanas. On the other hand, the
other 'Saadhak' -monks who proceed ahead
by annihilating the attachment impressions through the
extreme profoundness of self soul meditation - by first step of
pure thought activity (ShuklaDhyana), they reach the twelfth
Gunasthana devoid of passions by annihilating totally the
deluding (Mohaniya) karma.
There, in the 'Shukla Dhyana'
the remaining three destructive karmas (Ghatiyakarmas) namely
'JnanAvamam' (knowledge obscuring), 'DarshanAvamam' (perception
obscuring) and 'Antaraya' (obstructing karma) also gets
annihilated and at the same moment I in
the first moment of the thirteenth Gunasthana the infinite
knowledge, (omniscience), infinite perception (omni-vision /
omni -perception), infinite spiritual bliss and infinite soul
power - all those natural traits of the soul get magnified
/attained. The energies I capacities
which were getting somewhat manifested particularly in the
mundane life, now they all get manifested. This is what is
called the 'Arihant Awastha' (embodied omniscience Lord). Here
the knowledge (omniscience) is established in the self-soul, in
the knowledge itself; it is engrossed/immersed in experiencing
the bliss of self-soul nature. Here (in this Arihanta state)
infinite bliss is being enjoyed along with infinite power. The
non-destructive karmas (Aghatiya karmas) are still active I operative, in the existence of which the formation of 'Samavsarana'
(a very big preaching hall) takes place and without any effort
or desire the letter-less divine speech (Divya Dhwani) emanates
on its own naturally. Each living being present there gets the
path of self-benediction, path of getting rid of miseries and
becoming 'Paramatma' (Supreme Soul). When the duration of age
karma is likely to end, then they - the 'SayogiJina' (omniscient
conqueror) being situated in subtle bodily vibration reach the
fourteenth Gunasthana by checking the vibratory activity by
third step of' ShuklaDhyana'. Here (in the 14th Gunasthana which is of extremely shorter duration) they - the'
AyogiJina' by fourth step of 'ShuklaDhyana', attains 'Siddhahood'
(state of disembodied omniscient Supreme Soul) by destroying the
four' Aghatiya karmas' and by breaking the connection with three
bodies - namely' Audarika' (gross body), 'Taijas' (electric
body) and 'Karman' (Karmic body). This itself is
the highest state of Supreme Soul devoid of any body,
devoid of birth and death; it is in the perfectly pure state of
the soul; by contemplation - reflection - meditation of which
the mundane beings like us make effort of becoming like them.
What is the nature / characteristic of this purified soul!
disembodied omniscient soul? Neither (any kind of) attachment
nor aversion. The knowledge, etc. all attributes have attained
the perfection, have been fully manifested. Now nothing
remains to be done. The soul has become 'Kout-Krutya' (having
attained the aim perfectly and fully). Now nothing remained to
be evolved / manifested. After perfect manifestation of the
soul-nature nothing remains balance to be happened. That which
was not acquired till date, has now been acquired by that
self-soul nature and all that non-self matter which was accepted
(in soul's constitution) has been quit. Now nothing is balance
there to be accepted or to be quit. This soul has become Supreme
Soul (Parmatma), blossomed fully in knowledge- perception and
bliss (Sachchidanand) and has become Sentient Lord (Chaitanya
Prabhu). This itself is "Moksha" (Salvation /
Emancipation) ; this itself is the unison of
right faith - knowledge & conduct. This
itself is the nature of soul substance.
nsf[k;s] bd tkfu;s] jfe jfg;s BkSj
"See thyself one, know thyself one and remain
engrossed in that one place."
Great are those Jivas who, on
attaining this human male body, accomplished this work. The
attachment form of fire is burning the soul, i.e. it is causing
it to bear the infinite miseries; 'Oh self-soul ! Thou
has indulged in passion-al acts in each birth. Now Oh soul! Thou
has got the opportunity to engross in it by identifying thy own
nature. Behold! This opportunity may not be lost anywhere.
Mahavira's Declaration of Freedom: -
1. Each living being is potentially' Pannatma' - Supreme
Soul. He can become 'Pannatma' by gradually manifesting his
potency. This great declaration of freedom is made by
omniscient Lord Mahavira.
2. All Jivas of four Gatis
(states of existence) who are bestowed with mind (mental
faculty), irrespective of his being a 'Chandaal' (belonging to
down trodden class of human beings), an animal or a bird, can
attain insight- the right faith (Samyag-Darshan). Attaining of
right faith means to have attained the true path of
3. The definition of' Dharma'
(religion), which has been given! propounded by the omniscient
Lord Mahavira, no body else could give it till date. He never
said that- 'to worship me is religion’, but what he said is
that 'the nature of substance is religion '.
That which is the nature of soul-substance, that itself is
religion. Fire's nature is hotness, sugar's nature is
sweetness; similarly soul's nature is 'passion-less-ness', the
same (nature) is Jiva's religion.
4. He gave us 'Namokar
Mantra' - (an incantation of obeisance to five supreme
souls), in which He did not say to remember the name of any
particular person; but He said that (my) salutation is to Him
who has annihilated his passions- (attachment aversion), etc.
blemishes, my salutation is to Him who has attained his
nature; to them who also are engaged in annihilating their
blemishes (attachment aversion) and attaining their
(passionless) nature. This is really a wonderful 'Mantra'.
5. Lord Mahavira has explained the definition of' Ahinsa'
(nonviolence), which is all pervasive (applicable to all
beings of the world).
[kyq jkxknhuka HkoR;fgalSfr A"
i.e., non evolution of
attachment, etc. blemishes within our soul is assuredly 'Ahinsa'
(non violence). This means the evolution of attachment, etc.
blemishes itself is Hinsa (violence) irrespective of whether
outside (practical life) Jiva dies or does not die. Such a
nice definition (of Hinsa-Ahinsa) has not been given /
explained till date by anybody.
OF THE HINDI I
WORDS USED IN THE TEXT:
ATMA-JNAN: - The insight knowledge of/by/for our
own soul which is apart (separate) from the body.
Attachment feelings: - The feelings of Raag, i.e.
feelings of closeness & attachment to all worldly things.
Aversion feelings: - The feelings of Dwesha, i.e. the negative
feelings of anger, deceit towards others.
CHETAN: - All living beings with soul and having the
knowing and seeing power, also known as JIV A.
ACHETAN: - All non-living things with no soul and no
power of knowing or seeing, also known as AJIV A.
KARMA: - The result of our actions, which always remain with
DARSHAN: - Realising and seeing that the soul has impurities
like attachment and aversion feelings and to try to achieve
their total absence from the soul.
AK JNAN: - The knowledge of ways of removing these
attachments and aversion feelings from the soul and realise the
true sentient nature of the soul without these feelings.
SAMY AK CHARITRA: - To practically remain steady in our
true nature of soul without the attachment - aversion
GATI: - There are 4 stages of existence in which a Jiva
stays according to its own Kannas.
i. Manushya (Human) Gati
Dev (Residing in the Heavens) Gati
Triyancha (Animal, etc.) Gati
Narak (Residing in the Hells) Gati
12.KARMIC MATTER: - The results of all actions
Jiva in all his previous and present
lives, accumulated and attached to his present life &. Soul.
13. General Nature: - This nature of the substance (soul) !
14. Specific Nature: - This nature of the substance changes
according to the state in which a substance (body) is found.
15. RELINQUISHMENT: - To leave completely everything;
outwardly and inwardly.
16. GUNASTHANAS: - They define the position or state of
purity of the soul. These are 14 stages of spiritual
developments, which a soul can achieve. As the soul progresses
towards realising its self-nature, it proceeds towards achieving
the highest Gunasthan (14th).
JIVA: - A living thing with a soul.
BLEMISHES: - Shortcomings, faults, lack of perfection
BENEDICTION: - The blessings
DEVOID- Not possessing
FLORA- All Vegetation
FAUNA - All animals
INANIMATE- Without life, dull, not lively
NUCLEUS - The central core of anything
27. MUNDANE- Being ordinary, practical &
everyday or pertaining to the world
CONCEIT-Excessive self esteem or vanity
DECEIT- A lie, or any other dishonest action
INDULGE- To gratify one's desires
CELESTIAL- Heavenly, divine, pertaining to the sky
FORBEARANCE- To endure offences patiently
CELIBACY- The state of being unmarried
AUSPICIOUS- Fortunate, Leading to future success
To give up, leave or to disown 38. ANNIHILATION- Complete
FEEBLE- Weak, lacking force, inadequate
VIRTUOUS - Pure and chaste, Righteous, upright
41. P ASSIONLESSNESS- Complete absence of all feelings of
attachment and aversion
DWELLING- To live or to reside at a place
MALADY-Illness, or any disordered condition
44. NEGLIGENCE- Carelessness, lack of interest, not pay- -ing
BEATITUDE- Supreme bliss of liberation
ETERNITY- Limitless time, Infinite duration
47. IN CULCA TE- To impress the minds by frequent
repetition or to develop
DE GENERA TION- Progressive deterioration
RE-INCARNATION- The rebirth of a soul in a new body
P ARAPHERNALIA- Personal belongings and objects
KARMIC-MATTER- A resultant of our actions and deeds
VIVIDNESS- A very sharp, life like and clear image
MALICE- III feeling towards others
DISPOSITIONS- Natural temperament
TANGIBLE- Able to touch, feel, concrete
SAMANY A SWABHA V A- Equal and stable behaviour
PARY A Y A- Each form of existence of life or a living
Jnayak swabhava (or the property of
possessing know ledge)
RELINQUISHMENT-Giving away or leave everything
62. P ARA- Non-self objects or things not attached to one's
SW A- Self Soul
65. DISCRIMINATIVE- to observe a difference between various
67. KSHA YO P ASHAMIC JNAN- That knowledge attained
with the help of senses & mind
which increases and decreases and does not stay forever
68. SWA-ANUBHA V A- Self realisation or Atma -anubhav or
Atma darshan or Nij Satta anubhava i.e. knowing your own soul
and its intrinsic powers, rea1ising that the soul is not a part
of your body (It is separate)
69. TRANSMIGRATION- Taking birth again and again in
different forms of life (or Gatis)
OMNISCIENT-Having infinite knowledge
PIETY- Religious devotion
BAHIRAATMA- Extroverted soul
Y A- III feelings like anger, pride, deciet, greed 74.
PURUSHARTHA- All efforts to rea1ise the self soul and
achieve moksha or salvation
75. DEV A- Those who have rea1ised their self soul and
76. SHASTRA - The scriptures in which the preaching of
Devas are transcribed or written
77. GURU- Digamber Jain monks (or Sadhus) who show the way
to attain Moksha & themselves
walk on the path preached by Devas
TY A KHY ANA V ARAN KASHA Y A- The passion which opposes the
jiva to attain complete sanyam (self control)
79. PRA TIMAS- There are eleven Vows (Pratimas) which
relate to the conduct & behavior of jiva
80. CONGREGA TION- A group of people gathered for worship
81. SAMJW ALAN KASHA Y A- The passion which opposes jiva to
attain complete sanyam is its very feeble form
82. ANANTANUBANDHI: - The passions attached to jiva since
time immemorial which promote the jiva to live in this
83. TRANSGRESSION: - To disregard law, to pass beyond
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book how ever
any error is notices that may be
to us or alternatively the article may
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